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Rural People are Moving to Cities, so the Population in the Countryside is Decreasing - Task 2 Essay

Write about the following topic:


In many countries around the world, rural people are moving to cities, so the population in the countryside is decreasing.

Do you think this is a positive or a negative development?


Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experiences.


You should write at least 250 words.


IELTS Task 2 Essay Band 9 Sample based on the prompt "In many countries around the world, rural people are moving to cities, so the population in the countryside is decreasing.  Do you think this is a positive or a negative development? - ieltsluminary.com"

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Sample Essay 1

The phenomenon of rural-urban migration has become a global trend, fuelled by the promise of prosperity and enhanced quality of life in urban settings. While this shift offers several benefits, it is predominantly a negative development due to its far-reaching socioeconomic impacts.


One of the most profound effects of this migration is the exacerbation of economic disparities. As individuals migrate to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities, rural regions suffer a significant brain drain. This migration is not just a transfer of human resources but often results in a polarized economic scenario where cities become centres of wealth, while rural areas languish in poverty. The concentration of wealth and opportunities in urban locales often leads to inflated living costs, making these areas less accessible for the poorer sections of society. Consequently, this disparity discourages investment in rural infrastructure and services, leading to further economic decline. Thus, rather than creating opportunities for all, this trend often widens the economic divide.


Moreover, the depopulation of rural areas leads to severe underutilization of land and resources. Agriculture, which traditionally relies on human labour, is heavily impacted. This shift not only threatens food security but also the sustainability of rural economies dependent on agricultural outputs. The dwindling population makes it challenging to maintain and invest in rural infrastructure, leading to its decay and further discouraging people from staying or moving back to rural areas. However, technological advancements have begun to bridge some gaps. Telecommunication and remote work technologies offer some reprieve by providing educational and employment opportunities irrespective of location. For instance, e-learning platforms can deliver quality education to remote areas, potentially reducing the educational incentives of urban migration.


In conclusion, while urban migration presents certain advantages, it is largely a negative development that contributes to economic disparities, undermines rural economies, and necessitates unsustainable urban expansion.

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Sample Essay 2

In this contemporary society, a growing number of people are moving from rural to cities for a variety of reasons, leaving fewer people in the countryside. I firmly believe that this urban migration is a negative development.


Foremost, the rapid urban migration separates people depending on their incomes because only those with a certain level of earnings can afford to move and live in cities, leaving poor people in the countryside. Once people move to cities, they have a higher number of job opportunities with better conditions, such as higher salaries and less working hours, to choose from. This indicates that rich people get to even earn more in better environments as they move to cities, while poor people have no choice but to continue their current jobs in the countryside. Thus, it is safe to say that the rapid urban migration widens the wealth gap. Moreover, as fewer people are left in the countryside, it becomes harder for them to find human resources. As there are some occupations in the countryside that are crucial to all citizens’ lives, such as farming, urbanisation can cause detrimental impacts on the entire society.


The disadvantages of remaining in the countryside cannot be disregarded, as they are the reasons behind the urban migration. For instance, students have a substantially lower number of schools and universities to choose from in the countryside compared to cities, possibly demanding them to have educations that are not suited to their levels. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that this disadvantage has been gradually resolved through technology. Using online applications such as Zoom, students gain the ability to take classes without physically attending a school or a university, enabling them to have a wider number of choices even if they reside in the countryside.


In conclusion, I am in complete concurrence with the notion that urban migration is a negative development because it widens the wealth gap and impacts the entire society negatively. Although there are some disadvantages in living in the countryside, they have been overcome gradually using technology.


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Sample Essay 3

Across the globe, the migration from rural areas to urban centers has become a pronounced trend, leading to a decline in countryside populations. This essay contends that such a shift has both positive and negative implications, focusing on economic development and cultural erosion as key discussion points.


On one hand, the urban migration fuels economic growth significantly. Cities, renowned for their dynamic economic activities, offer a plethora of employment opportunities that are scarcely found in rural settings. This concentration of labor and capital in urban areas not only accelerates innovation and infrastructural development but also enhances the nation's economic landscape, driving substantial growth. For instance, tech hubs like Silicon Valley have become economic powerhouses due to the aggregation of talent and resources, contributing enormously to the United States' GDP. Furthermore, urbanization supports the proliferation of education and healthcare services, vastly enhancing the quality of life for many. The presence of diverse educational institutions and state-of-the-art healthcare facilities in urban areas underscores the benefits of urban migration.


However, this migration is not without its drawbacks, affecting both the social fabric and the environment. The exodus to cities often results in the depopulation of rural areas, leading to the gradual erosion of traditional cultures and lifestyles that have been the backbone of societies for centuries. Rural communities, with their rich heritage and traditions, play a pivotal role in preserving cultural diversity. As these communities dwindle, invaluable cultural practices and languages risk extinction, stripping humanity of its rich cultural tapestry. Additionally, the sudden surge in urban population exacerbates housing and infrastructural pressures, leading to overcrowded cities and the unchecked expansion of slums. This not only strains urban resources but also poses significant environmental and social challenges, such as increased pollution and social inequality.


In conclusion, while the movement towards urban areas champions economic advancement and access to better services, it concurrently poses a threat to cultural heritage and strains urban capacities. Balancing economic development with cultural preservation and urban planning is essential to mitigate the negative impacts of this global trend.


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Sample Essay 4

The accelerating trend of rural people moving to cities, precipitating a decreasing population in the countryside, has captivated global attention. This essay contends that this urban migration is overwhelmingly beneficial for both individuals and nations at large. I will dissect its advantageous impact on economic opportunities in urban settings and debunk concerns regarding the alleged neglect of cultural heritage and environmental degradation in rural areas.


First and foremost, the migration from rural to urban settings serves as an impetus for economic invigoration and affords transformative personal opportunities. Cities are hotbeds for diverse job markets, cutting-edge healthcare facilities, and well-funded educational systems. For example, data from the World Bank reveals a staggering 20-30% wage differential favouring urban areas over their rural counterparts. Such figures validate the enhanced quality of life migrants can attain, propelling not just individual but also collective national prosperity. Moreover, the argument that urban migration depletes rural cultural heritage is misguided. Cities serve as hubs for cultural amalgamation where rural traditions don't just survive but thrive and adapt. The exposure to a broader audience can provide traditional arts and crafts with a platform for wider acceptance and commercial viability.


Skeptics often claim that this migration influx strains urban ecosystems, exacerbating pollution and resource depletion. However, it is essential to recognize that cities are at the forefront of pioneering sustainable initiatives. Due to their high-density populations, cities are more incentivized to invest in efficient public transport systems that reduce carbon footprints, as well as green architecture that emphasizes energy efficiency. For instance, cities like Copenhagen and Singapore have set global standards in sustainability, from waste management to renewable energy adoption. Therefore, rather than being detrimental, the increased population in urban areas can expedite the transition to more sustainable living practices, dispelling the misconception that urban growth inherently compounds environmental issues.


In conclusion, the rural-to-urban migration trend serves as an indispensable catalyst for economic growth, cultural enrichment, and environmental sustainability. Far from being detrimental, this shift is integral to the advancement of contemporary societies.



Sample Essay 5

The phenomenon of rural people moving to cities, thereby inducing a decreasing population in the countryside, has garnered considerable scholarly and policy attention. This essay asserts that such migratory patterns are not only advantageous but indeed vital for the individual and collective well-being of nations. I will delve into the financial prospects it avails in urban environments, while also addressing and dispelling the lingering doubts concerning cultural erosion and ecological detriment.


Primarily, the transition from rural to urban landscapes acts as a linchpin for economic rejuvenation and personal advancement. Urban locations are breeding grounds for a diverse array of professions, avant-garde medical facilities, and high-calibre educational institutions. A study conducted by the International Labour Organization corroborates that urban locales offer a wage surplus of approximately 25-35% compared to rural settings. Such metrics substantiate the notion that migration offers an escalator to augmented personal prosperity and contributes to macroeconomic vibrancy. Additionally, the diversification of job markets in cities fosters innovation, often leading to ground-breaking advancements in fields like technology, medicine, and social services.


Contrary to conventional wisdom, this migratory trend doesn't necessarily portend the extinction of rural culture. Cities often function as crucibles where native traditions find not just refuge but also fertile ground for evolution and propagation. Moreover, fears of ecological degradation in rural localities are largely misplaced. Many cities are fast becoming paragons of sustainability, adopting innovations like vertical farming and waste-to-energy technologies that offset their environmental impact. For example, metropolises like Tokyo and Stockholm are exemplars of integrating ecological initiatives within their urban planning, thus neutralizing the perceived environmental cost of migration.


To encapsulate, the urban migration trajectory serves as an invaluable engine for economic prosperity, cultural preservation, and environmental stewardship. This trend is far from a societal liability; rather, it is an indispensable asset in shaping resilient, modern societies.


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