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A Guide for IELTS Vocabulary

IELTS exam is also a test of vocabulary. You will need vocabulary resource everywhere in this test. It will be easy for you to impress the examiner if you can use a wide range of vocabulary.

To put it another way, vocabulary is the important aspect of the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) exam because it is a measure of the test-taker's proficiency in the English language. A strong vocabulary is essential for understanding the questions, as well as for expressing oneself clearly and accurately in the speaking and writing sections.

In the reading section, a strong vocabulary allows test-takers to understand the meaning of words they may not be familiar with and to infer the meaning of sentences based on context.


In the listening section, a strong vocabulary helps test-takers to understand spoken English and to follow the main ideas and details in the audio.


In the writing section, a strong vocabulary allows test-takers to use a wide range of words and phrases to express their ideas clearly and accurately.


And in the speaking section, a strong vocabulary enables test-takers to express themselves fluently and to use appropriate vocabulary for different situations.


Therefore, having a strong vocabulary can help test-takers to achieve a higher score in the IELTS exam, as well as to improve their overall proficiency in the English language.


On the other hand, if you use the same word multiple times in different sentences in a row, it will convey a negative impression to the examiner about your lexical resources. In this page, we will give a detailed discussion on how you can build your vocabulary for IELTS exam.

How to Build Vocabulary for IELTS

You should apply a smart strategy to build your IELTS vocabulary, because without a good plan and strategy, it is really difficult to learn the vocabulary effectively. That means, applying vocabulary learning strategies is important because it helps to:

Improve retention: By applying strategies such as flashcards, mnemonics, and practicing regularly, you are more likely to remember new words and retain them in your long-term memory.


Enhance comprehension: Learning words in context, understanding word roots and prefixes, and learning idioms and phrases, can help you to better understand written and spoken English, which in turn can enhance comprehension.


Increase expressiveness: Understanding synonyms and antonyms and learning words with similar meanings can help you to express yourself more effectively in English, which can improve your speaking and writing skills.


Make learning more efficient: By using strategies such as flashcards, mnemonics, and online resources, you can make your vocabulary learning more efficient and effective.


Enhance performance in exams: Having a strong vocabulary is essential for performing well in exams such as the IELTS, TOEFL and others. Using strategies to build and retain vocabulary can help you to achieve a higher score in these exams.


Improving overall proficiency in the language: Regularly applying vocabulary learning strategies can help to improve overall proficiency in the English language, which can be beneficial for both personal and professional growth.

In short, applying vocabulary learning strategies can help you to build a stronger vocabulary more efficiently and effectively, which can have many benefits for your language proficiency.

You can follow the steps below to build your IELTS vocabulary:

  1. Start with the most common words: Learn the most commonly used words in English first, as they will give you the most bang for your buck.

  2. Learn words in context: Try to learn words in the context of a sentence or a short passage, as this will help you understand how the word is used.

  3. Read widely: Reading books, articles, and other written materials can expose you to a wide range of vocabulary.

  4. Keep a vocabulary journal: Write down new words you come across and their meanings, and review them regularly.

  5. Practice using new words: Try to incorporate new words into your writing and speaking as soon as you learn them.

  6. Use flashcards: Create flashcards with new words and their meanings to help with memorization.

  7. Play word games: Games like Scrabble, Boggle, and crossword puzzles can help you learn new words in a fun way.

  8. Watch English-language television and movies: Listening to native speakers can help you learn how words are pronounced and used in context.

  9. Take a vocabulary quiz: Test yourself on your new vocabulary to see how much you have retained.

  10. Learn word roots and prefixes: Understanding the origins of words can help you remember them better and figure out the meanings of words you don't know.

  11. Use online resources: There are many online resources that can help you build your vocabulary, such as vocabulary-building apps and websites.

  12. Repeat and revise: Keep revisiting the words you have learned to make sure they stay in your long-term memory.

Common Topics for IELTS Vocabulary

Common IELTS Vocabulary Topics

The most common topics for IELTS vocabulary include:

  1. Education: words related to school, universities, and the education system.

  2. Technology: words related to computers, the internet, and other forms of technology.

  3. The Environment: words related to pollution, conservation, and other environmental issues.

  4. Health: words related to medical conditions, treatments, and health care.

  5. Employment: words related to jobs, careers, and the workforce.

  6. Transport: words related to vehicles, transportation systems, and infrastructure.

  7. Tourism: words related to travel, accommodation, and attractions.

  8. Media: words related to newspapers, television, and other forms of media.

  9. Urbanization: words related to cities, urban planning, and urban issues.

  10. Culture: words related to customs, traditions, and cultural events.

  11. Government and Politics: words related to government policies, political systems, and political events.

  12. Globalization: words related to international trade, business, and cultural exchange.


It's important to note that these topics may change depending on the current events and the test format. It's a good idea to stay informed about the latest news and current events to build your vocabulary on the most recent trends and topics.

IELTS Environment Vocabulary

In the IELTS exam, learning environment related vocabulary is important because it can help students demonstrate their ability to use specific and accurate language when discussing educational topics.


This is particularly important in the Writing and Speaking sections of the exam, where students are expected to express their ideas and opinions in a clear and coherent manner.

In the Writing section, using relevant vocabulary can help students score higher in the lexical resource sub-score, which assesses their ability to use a wide range of vocabulary appropriately and effectively.


In the Speaking section, using relevant vocabulary can help students communicate their ideas more clearly and fluently, which can lead to a higher score in the fluency and coherence sub-score.

Furthermore, learning environment related vocabulary can also be useful in the Reading and Listening sections as well, as it may appear in the passages or dialogues. It can help students to understand the texts more effectively and answer the related questions accurately.


Overall, having a strong understanding of learning environment related vocabulary can help students perform better in all sections of the IELTS exam, which can lead to a higher overall score.

Let's have a look at some of the most essential environment related vocabulary:

Climate Change:

Climate change refers to the long-term changes in temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other measures of climate that occur over several decades or longer. These changes are primarily caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal, oil, and gas), deforestation, and land-use change.

Greenhouse Gases:

Greenhouse gases are gases in the Earth's atmosphere that trap heat from the sun, leading to warming of the Earth's surface.

Renewable Energy:

Renewable energy refers to energy sources that are replenished naturally and do not deplete finite resources. These sources include solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass energy.

Carbon Footprint:

A carbon footprint is a measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual, organization, event or product, expressed as an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). It is used to assess the impact of human activities on the environment, specifically the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere.

Sustainable Development:

Sustainable development is a concept that refers to the development of economic, social, and environmental well-being, while also preserving resources for future generations. It is a holistic approach that seeks to balance economic growth, social well-being, and environmental protection.


Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth, including the variety of species, ecosystems, and genetic diversity within species. It encompasses the diversity of terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems, and the variety of habitats, such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, and coral reefs.


Deforestation refers to the conversion of forested land to non-forested land, whether for agriculture, urban development, or other human activities. This process can be driven by a variety of factors, including population growth, economic development, logging, and infrastructure development.

Habitat Destruction:

Habitat destruction refers to the destruction or degradation of the environment in which a particular species lives. It can occur as a result of human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, logging, mining, and infrastructure development. Habitat destruction can also occur as a result of natural causes such as wildfires or storms.

Air Pollution:

Air pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances in the air that we breathe. These substances can be in the form of gases, particulates, or biological molecules. Air pollution can be caused by human activities such as burning fossil fuels, industrial processes, and transportation, as well as by natural events such as wildfires and volcanic eruptions.

Water Pollution:

Water pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances in water bodies such as rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater. These substances can be in the form of chemicals, pollutants, or sewage.

Soil Contamination:

Soil contamination refers to the presence of harmful substances in the soil that can negatively impact human health, plants and animals. These harmful substances can be in the form of chemicals, pollutants, or hazardous waste. Soil contamination can occur from a variety of sources, both natural and human-caused.

Ozone Depletion:

Ozone depletion refers to the thinning of the ozone layer, a region of the Earth's stratosphere that contains a high concentration of ozone (O3) molecules. The ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

Marine Pollution:

Marine pollution refers to the presence of harmful substances in the ocean, including chemicals, pollutants, and debris, that can have negative impacts on marine life and ecosystems, as well as human health.

Acid Rain:

Acid rain refers to precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, or fog) that has a pH level lower than 5.6, which is considered acidic. It is caused by the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) into the atmosphere, primarily from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. These pollutants can be carried long distances by the wind and can mix with water droplets in the atmosphere to form acidic precipitation.

Climate Adaptation:

Climate adaptation refers to the actions taken to reduce the negative impacts of climate change and to take advantage of any potential opportunities. It includes a range of activities such as designing buildings and infrastructure that can withstand extreme weather, improving water management, and developing drought-resistant crops. Climate adaptation is important because some impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise and increased frequency of extreme weather events, are already happening and will continue to occur in the future.

Conservation Biology:

Conservation biology is the scientific study of the preservation, protection, and management of biodiversity, with a focus on the conservation of species, populations, and ecosystems. Conservation biology is an interdisciplinary field that draws on the knowledge and techniques of ecology, genetics, evolution, and environmental science, as well as social science and law.

Ecological Footprint:

An ecological footprint is a measure of the impact that human activities have on the environment, specifically the amount of land and water required to sustain those activities. It is usually expressed in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water required to produce the resources consumed, absorb the waste produced and provide the services used by a particular population or individual.

Environmental Impact Assessment:

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of a project, plan, program or policy, and determining whether it is environmentally acceptable. It is a tool used to evaluate the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed project or development before it is approved and implemented.


Geography is the study of the Earth's physical features and human activity on the planet. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including the study of the Earth's physical features such as landforms, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as the human activities that shape and are shaped by these features, such as population, economic systems, and political systems.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources are materials and substances that occur naturally within the environment and can be used for economic gain. They include both renewable resources, such as timber, wind, and solar energy, and non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), minerals, and certain metals.

Climate Variability:

Climate variability refers to the natural fluctuations in the climate over time, that can be caused by internal and external factors, such as ocean-atmosphere interactions, solar radiation, volcanic activity, and human-induced changes in the atmosphere. Climate variability can manifest in the form of changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climate-related variables, and can occur on a range of time scales, from day-to-day weather fluctuations, to seasonal changes, to multi-decadal changes.

Environmental Justice:

Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people, regardless of race, colour, national origin, or income, in the environmental decision-making process. It is the principle that all people have the right to live and work in a healthy environment, free from discrimination.


Recycling is the process of collecting, processing, and reusing materials that would otherwise be discarded as waste. Recycling can include materials such as paper, plastics, glass, metals, and organic materials. The goal of recycling is to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and incinerators, conserve natural resources, and reduce the environmental impacts of the production of new materials.

Green Technology:

Green technology, also known as environmental technology or clean technology, refers to the use of environmentally friendly techniques and equipment to produce goods and services. It encompasses a wide range of products and processes that have been designed to minimize negative impacts on the environment and promote sustainability.

Wildlife Conservation:

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild animals and their habitats in order to ensure their survival and prevent their extinction. It encompasses a wide range of activities, including protecting and preserving endangered species, managing hunting and fishing, and restoring and protecting habitats.

Land Use Planning:

Land use planning is the process of determining how land should be used and managed, with the goal of balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. It involves analysing land use patterns, assessing potential impacts of different land use decisions, and creating plans and policies to guide development and conservation efforts.


Ecotourism is a form of sustainable tourism that focuses on protecting the natural environment and the well-being of local communities. It is based on the principle of visiting natural areas in a way that does not harm the environment or disrupt the lives of local people.

Green Chemistry:

Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. It is a scientific field that applies the principles of sustainability to the design, development, and use of chemical products and processes.

Water Management:

Water management is the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources in a sustainable way. It involves the collection, treatment, distribution, and conservation of water resources in order to meet the needs of human populations and the environment.

Climate Mitigation:

Climate mitigation refers to the actions taken to reduce or prevent the emission of greenhouse gases, which are the main cause of climate change. Mitigation strategies aim to reduce the intensity of climate change and decrease the likelihood of severe climate impacts.

Environmental Science:

Environmental science is the interdisciplinary study of the natural world and the ways in which human activities impact it. It combines principles from a variety of scientific fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, geology, and geography, to understand and address the environmental problems facing our planet.

Climate Science:

Climate science is the study of the Earth's climate system, including its natural variability and the human impact on it. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including meteorology, atmospheric science, oceanography, geology, and geography.

Climate Policy:

Climate policy refers to the actions taken by governments, organizations, and individuals to address climate change. It encompasses a wide range of measures, including regulations, incentives, and programs aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy sources.

Ecological Restoration:

Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed. It involves the intentional manipulation of the environment in order to bring it back to a more natural state and can include activities such as removing invasive species, reintroducing native species, and re-establishing natural processes.

Green Infrastructure:

Green infrastructure refers to a network of natural and semi-natural areas that provide a range of ecosystem services, such as clean air and water, carbon sequestration, climate regulation, and biodiversity conservation. It includes a wide range of features such as parks, wetlands, forests, and green roofs, that are integrated into the built environment and can be used to manage water, reduce air pollution, and create wildlife habitats.

Climate Resilience:

Climate resilience refers to the ability of a community, society, or ecosystem to withstand, adapt to, and recover from the impacts of climate change. It encompasses the social, economic, and environmental factors that enable a system to cope with climate-related hazards and to continue functioning in the face of changing conditions.

Energy Efficiency:

Energy efficiency refers to the reduction of the amount of energy required to provide goods and services. This can be achieved through a variety of measures such as using energy-efficient appliances and equipment, designing buildings to be more energy-efficient, and implementing energy-saving practices.

Carbon Sequestration:

Carbon sequestration is the process of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing it in a secure and permanent way. This can be achieved through a variety of methods such as afforestation and reforestation, soil carbon sequestration, and ocean fertilization.

Ecosystem Services:

Ecosystem services are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, such as clean air and water, food, and medicine. They also include the less tangible benefits such as spiritual and cultural values. Ecosystem services can be grouped into four categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services.

Sustainable Transportation:

Sustainable transportation refers to the efficient and environmentally-friendly movement of people and goods. It includes a range of transportation options that are designed to reduce the negative impacts of transportation on the environment, public health, and quality of life.

Natural Capital:

Natural capital refers to the stock of natural resources, such as forests, minerals, and water, that provide benefits to people and the economy. It is often thought of as the sum total of the earth's natural resources, including land, water, air, and all living things. Natural capital is seen as a way to value and account for the economic benefits that nature provides, such as the provision of ecosystem services, such as water purification, pollination, and climate regulation. It also includes the non-use values of nature, such as its aesthetic, cultural, and spiritual significance.

Climate-smart Agriculture:

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach to farming that helps farmers to increase productivity, improve their resilience to climate change, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is a holistic approach that takes into account the inter-linkages between the three pillars of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental.

Renewable Energy Targets:

Renewable energy targets refer to specific goals set by governments, businesses, or organizations to increase the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydro power, in order to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. These targets can be set for electricity generation, transportation, or overall energy consumption and can be short-term or long-term. Examples include the European Union's goal of sourcing 32% of its energy from renewables by 2030, and California's goal of 100% clean energy by 2045.

Adaptation Planning:

Adaptation planning refers to the process of identifying and preparing for the impacts of climate change on a community or organization. This can include assessing vulnerabilities to extreme weather events, sea level rise, and other climate-related hazards, and developing strategies to reduce those vulnerabilities. Adaptation planning can also include identifying opportunities to enhance resilience and take advantage of beneficial climate change impacts.

Water Conservation:

Water conservation refers to the practices and strategies used to reduce water usage and waste, and to protect and preserve water resources. This can include a wide range of actions, such as using water-efficient fixtures and appliances, practicing water-saving landscaping, and implementing water recycling and reuse systems. Water conservation can also include the protection and restoration of wetlands, aquifers, and other water bodies that help to recharge groundwater and maintain the health of ecosystems.

Climate Change Adaptation:

Climate change adaptation refers to the actions taken to prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, increased frequency of extreme weather events, and changes in precipitation patterns. Adaptation can take many forms, including structural measures such as building sea walls or levees, non-structural measures such as creating early warning systems for extreme weather events, and natural measures such as restoring wetlands or other natural systems that can help reduce the impacts of climate change.

Climate-friendly Products:

Climate-friendly products are products that have a lower environmental impact compared to traditional products. These products can be designed to be more energy-efficient, use renewable energy sources, be made from sustainable materials, or have a longer lifespan. Some examples of climate-friendly products include LED light bulbs, electric vehicles, energy-efficient appliances, and products made from recycled materials.

Climate-proofing Infrastructure:

Climate-proofing infrastructure refers to the process of making infrastructure more resilient to the impacts of climate change. This can include measures such as elevating roads, bridges and buildings in flood-prone areas, reinforcing coastal defences, and designing buildings and infrastructure to be more resistant to extreme weather events. The process of climate-proofing infrastructure also typically involves a process of identifying vulnerabilities to climate change impacts and assessing the costs and benefits of different adaptation measures.

Climate-smart Urban Planning:

Climate-smart urban planning is a strategy for designing and managing cities and towns in a way that reduces their vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, while also promoting sustainable development. This can include measures such as increasing green space and tree cover, creating bike- and pedestrian-friendly streets, designing buildings to be more energy efficient, and implementing systems for capturing and managing stormwater. Additionally, climate-smart urban planning can also involve assessing the potential impacts of sea level rise and extreme weather events, and incorporating these considerations into land-use decisions and infrastructure development.

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