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Ozone Hole over Antarctica and The Production of Ozone-damaging Gases- Task 1 Multiple Graphs Band 9

Updated: Jul 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.


The graphs below show the size of the ozone hole over Antarctica and the production of three ozone-damaging gases from 1980 to 2000.


Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.


Write at least 150 words.

Task 1 Multiple Graphs Band 9 Sample (The graphs show the size of the ozone hole over Antarctica and the production of three ozone-damaging gases from 1980 to 2000.)

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Sample Report 1

The provided illustrations delineate the expansion of the ozone hole over Antarctica and fluctuations in the emission levels of three ozone-depleting gases from 1980 to 2000.


Initially, a notable expansion in the ozone hole's size is observed, paired with varied trends in gas emissions. The period under review witnesses substantial changes in the quantities of gases released into the atmosphere, reflecting direct impacts on the ozone layer.


From 1980 to 1990, the ozone hole expanded from approximately 500,000 km² to 2,000,000 km². This growth momentarily slowed, reducing to about 1,000,000 km² by 1993, before a sharp resurgence led to an unprecedented size of 4,000,000 km² by the year 2000. This indicates a drastic eightfold increase from the initial measurement in 1980.


Concurrently, the emissions of CFC-11 began at a peak of around 70 million tonnes in 1980, maintaining stability until a gradual decline to below 10 million tonnes by 2000. In contrast, CFC-12 emissions exhibited a steady ascent from 30 million tonnes to approximately 50 million tonnes. Remarkably, N2O emissions were not recorded until after 1990, surging from zero to 30 million tonnes within a decade. These trends correlate with the significant fluctuations observed in the size of the ozone hole, particularly the substantial increase post-1993.


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Sample Report 2

The diagrams presented delineate both the growth of the ozone hole over Antarctica and the variances in emissions of three distinct gases detrimental to the ozone layer, spanning from 1980 to 2000.


At the outset, there is a discernible escalation in the dimensions of the ozone hole, coinciding with diverse trends in gas emissions over the studied period. This timeframe exhibits marked variations in the volumes of gases expelled, reflecting their direct influences on the ozone layer's integrity.


Initially, the area of the ozone hole grew significantly, increasing from an estimated 500,000 km² in 1980 to 2,000,000 km² by 1990. This growth was briefly moderated, with a reduction to about 1,000,000 km² in 1993, only to experience a robust resurgence, culminating in a size of 4,000,000 km² by 2000. This represents an eightfold rise from the figure recorded at the start of the decade.


Simultaneously, the release of CFC-11 commenced at a zenith of approximately 70 million tonnes in 1980, with figures stabilizing before witnessing a progressive decrease to under 10 million tonnes by the millennium's turn. Conversely, emissions of CFC-12 depicted a consistent climb from 30 million tonnes to roughly 50 million tonnes. Notably, emissions of N2O, absent from records until post-1990, escalated dramatically from non-existence to 30 million tonnes within ten years. These emission patterns are notably aligned with the significant expansions and contractions observed in the ozone hole, especially the notable increase after 1993.



Sample Report 3

The diagrams illustrate the ozone hole size over Antarctica and the amount of three different types of gases that damaged the layer from 1980 to 2000.


Overall, the size of the ozone hole grew larger over the whole period. The production of CFC-12 and N2O increased, but the average release of CFC-11 declined.


The size of the ozone hole increased from around 500,000 km2 to 2,000,000 km2 from 1980 to 1990, followed by a decline to roughly 1,000,000 km2 in the next three years. However, a drastic increase was witnessed afterwards, and the size reached to 4,000,000 km2 in 2000, which was around 8 times more than in 1980.


The amount of CFC-11 emission was the highest in 1980, at about 70 million tonnes. It remained mostly stable from 1980 to 1983, then experienced a continuous decrease over the period, to less than 10 million tons in 2000. The production of CFC-12, on the contrary, remained a slow increase from 30 million tons to about 40 million tons. N2O, however, only appeared after 1990, increased dramatically from 0 to 30 million tons over 10 years, which might contribute to the increase of the ozone hole after 1993.


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