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Information about U.S. Government Spending on Research - Task 1 Line Graph

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.


The graph below gives information about U.S. government spending on research between 1980 and 2008.


Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.


Write at least 150 words.



Task 1 Line Graph Band 9 Sample (The graph gives information about U.S. government spending on research between 1980 and 2008.)

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Model Answer 1

The graph illustrates the amount of money that the United States government spent on research between 1980 and 2008 across various sectors., the funding allocated to each sector varied significantly during this period.


During the entire duration, all the mentioned fields had a rise in their budgets, except for the category of 'other'. Additionally, it is noteworthy that the health research division incurred the highest expenses for the United States.


Upon close examination of the data, it was revealed that from 1980 to the culmination of the analysed period, health research funding had a remarkable escalation, surging from roughly $8 billion to a zenith of about $22 billion in 2004, after which a modest downturn occurred. In contrast, both space and 'other' budgets commenced at approximately $7 billion, declining to $5 billion in 1984 before experiencing proportional growth until 2000. However, by 2008, while the space budget skyrocketed to nearly $10 billion, the allocation for 'other' declined to $5 billion.


Turning to energy spending, the allocation was precisely $5 billion in 1980, remaining at that level for more than a decade, with occasional fluctuations around 1996. However, by 2008, the budget had risen to around $7.5 billion. Conversely, notwithstanding a gradual surge to $5 billion in 2000 followed by a prolonged plateau that persisted for eight years, the field of general science encountered the least allocation of funds during the entire duration under consideration.


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Model Answer 2

The graph illustrates the amount of money that the United States government spent on research between 1980 and 2008 across various sectors., the funding allocated to each sector varied significantly during this period.


Overall, the data reveals that while the total amount of funding for research had risen considerably, funding for other areas underwent significant changes, indicating a shift in priorities and policy direction over time.


As the chart shows, the majority of research funding was directed towards health research throughout the given period. However, the amount spent on health research peaked in 2004 at approximately 22 billion dollars before decreasing to 18 billion dollars in 2008. In contrast, the funding for general science remained consistently low, ranging from 2.5 billion dollars in 1980 to 5 billion dollars in 2008.


Interestingly, research spending in the "other," space, and energy sectors witnessed significant fluctuations, ranging from 5 to 10 billion dollars. In 1980, "other" research had the second-highest allocation with approximately 7.5 billion dollars, followed by space and energy research with approximately 6 and 5 billion dollars, respectively. However, in 2008, the scenario had changed, with space research becoming the top priority with around 9 billion dollars in funding, followed by energy research with about 7.5 billion dollars, and "other" research with only about 5 billion dollars.


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Model Answer 3

The given graphical representation exhibits the amount of money spent by the US government between 1980 and 2008 on research in various domains, including health, space, energy, general science, and the catch-all category of "other."


It is evident that the primary focus of research funding throughout the given period was on health, with a peak expenditure of approximately 22 billion dollars in 2004. However, this value witnessed a subsequent sharp drop to around 18 billion dollars in 2008. In contrast, funding for general science, which was the lowest among the five areas, grew steadily from 2.5 billion dollars in 1980 to 5 billion dollars in 2008.


Meanwhile, research spending on the remaining three areas, namely "other," space, and energy, underwent notable fluctuations, with a range between 5 to 10 billion dollars. In 1980, "other" research ranked second highest, with an allocation of roughly 7.5 billion dollars, followed by space and energy research with approximately 6 and 5 billion dollars, respectively. However, in 2008, the situation had transformed significantly, with space research acquiring the top spot with about 9 billion dollars, followed by energy with approximately 7.5 billion dollars. Conversely, the funding for "other" research had declined to roughly 5 billion dollars.


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Model Answer 4

The graph shows the amount spent by the US government between 1980 and 2008 on research in the fields of health, space, energy, general science, and "other".


The majority of funds were spent on health research overall throughout that time. All of the stated research areas' costs, with the exception of "other," grew with time.


The money spent on health research began at around 8 billion dollars in 1980, which was the highest among the five study areas in that period. However, this amount decreased to approximately 7 billion dollars in 1984, followed by a sharp increase to hit the peak of about 22 billion dollars in 2004 before abruptly declining to roughly $18 billion dollars in 2008. Even though funding for research in general sciences remained at its lowest level, it gradually climbed from around 2.5 billion dollars in 1980 to 5 billion dollars in 2008.


Over the allotted time, there was a considerable fluctuation in the research spending for other, space, and energy, ranging from 5 to 10 billion dollars. In 1980, research for "other" area was the second highest with around 7.5 billion dollars, followed by space and energy for 6 and 5 billion dollars, respectively. However, in 2008, this ranking had shifted, with space research coming in at around 9 billion dollars, energy at about 7.5 billion dollars, and "other" at roughly 5 billion dollars.


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Model Answer 5

The line graph shows the US government's research spending in many fields during a 28-year period, from 1980 to 2008, including health, space, energy, and general science.

Overall, most amount of money was spent for health research during the period. Except other, expenses for all the given study areas increased over the years.


The health sector fund maintained its position at the top over the years, despite experiencing highs and lows. It began with over $8 billion in 1980 before dipping slightly to about $6 billion in 1984. With a significant rise to over 20 billion dollars in 2004, the study expense on health sector plunged to roughly 18 million dollars in the following four years; however, it still registered the highest amount of research spending among all the five categories.


On the other hand, space and general science fields achieved the similar amount of increase in expenditure that is about 5 billion, and had mild decline in the middle of the period. The energy sector, in contrast to the areas of space and general science, showed a clear rise and dip from 1992 to 2000, and then climbed again to reach the third-highest point in 2008.



Model Answer 6

Information regarding the amount the government spent on research from 1980 to 2008 is depicted in a line graph. This displays the funding for five research areas on a billion-dollar scale.


Overall, expenditure on health sector is the largest in all the years and it shows the bigger increase than any other sectors. Moreover, graph trends in all fields, except for the “other”, increased over the years, while other sector showed slight decrease from 1980 to 2008.


To be more specific, although it made quite big decline from 2004 to 2008 (which is about 5 billion), the expenditure on health almost tripled from 1984 to 2004. Meanwhile, space and general science fields achieved the similar amount of increase in expenditure that is about 5 billion, and had mild decline in the middle of the period. Expenditures on both sectors were below 10 billion dollars. Contrast to space and general science, energy sector made obvious rise and fall during the period 1992 to 2000, and then increased again to the third highest point in 2008.


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