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People are Migrating to Cities in Search of a Better Life, but City Life can be Extremely Difficult.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.


Write about the following topic:


More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely difficult.

Explain some of the difficulties of living in a city.

How can governments make urban life better for everyone?


Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experiences.


You should write at least 250 words.


IELTS Task 2 Band 9 Sample Essay in response to the question prompt "More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely difficult. Explain some of the difficulties of living in a city. How can governments make urban life better for everyone?" - ieltsluminary.com

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Model Essay 1

The relentless migration towards cities, driven by the pursuit of enhanced living standards, presents a paradox; urban life, while promising, can be fraught with challenges. This essay posits that issues such as overcrowding, pollution, and the high cost of living exacerbate the urban experience, while advocating for government intervention to ameliorate housing, transportation, and environmental policies as solutions.


Urban areas, often seen as beacons of opportunity, ironically harbor conditions that can diminish the quality of life. Overcrowding, a direct consequence of this migration, strains infrastructure and public services, leading to a degradation of living conditions. For instance, Tokyo and New York, epitomes of urbanization, grapple with housing shortages that push rent prices to prohibitive levels, compelling residents to live in cramped conditions. Moreover, the quest for space has escalated into a vertical sprawl, with skyscrapers dominating skylines, yet offering little solace from the claustrophobia on the streets. Pollution, both environmental and noise, further compounds the urban dilemma. Vehicles, industrial activities, and dense populations emit pollutants that taint the air, water, and soundscapes, contributing to health issues ranging from respiratory problems to stress-related illnesses. The absence of green spaces in many cities exacerbates this, depriving residents of natural refuges from urban chaos.


Governments, as custodians of public welfare, have pivotal roles in crafting policies that ensure urban environments are conducive to healthy, sustainable living. Investment in affordable housing projects can alleviate the burden of high living costs, making cities more accessible to diverse populations. Additionally, enhancing public transportation systems can reduce reliance on personal vehicles, curtailing traffic congestion and pollution. Initiatives to expand green spaces, like Singapore's Garden City vision, not only beautify urban areas but also serve as lungs for cities, improving air quality and providing residents with much-needed recreational areas.


In conclusion, while cities offer unparalleled opportunities, the associated challenges necessitate comprehensive strategies for improvement. Through targeted government actions focusing on housing, transportation, and the environment, urban life can be transformed to fulfill its promise of a better life for all.


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Model Essay 2

The allure of urban centers as hubs of prosperity and growth often conceals the myriad challenges they present to inhabitants. Acknowledging the hardships such as environmental degradation, social isolation, and economic disparity, this discourse argues for proactive governmental roles in enhancing urban planning, fostering community engagement, and ensuring economic inclusivity as fundamental to improving city life.


The environmental impact of dense urbanization manifests in alarming pollution levels and the heat island effect, significantly diminishing urban dwellers' quality of life. Cities like Beijing experience hazardous smog levels, directly impacting residents' health and necessitating governmental intervention in green infrastructure development. This approach not only addresses air quality but also mitigates the urban heat island phenomenon. Furthermore, the social fabric of cities often suffers under the weight of rapid urbanization, leading to increased feelings of isolation among residents. Initiatives such as Copenhagen's investment in communal spaces and biking infrastructure have demonstrated significant success in cultivating a sense of community and belonging, essential for mental and emotional well-being.


Economic disparity in cities presents a formidable challenge, with the cost of living escalating beyond the reach of many. Governmental policies aimed at ensuring affordable housing and supporting small businesses can play a pivotal role in bridging this gap. For instance, the implementation of rent control measures in cities like Berlin has been instrumental in keeping housing affordable, thus fostering a more inclusive urban environment.


In summary, the complexities of urban living necessitate a multifaceted approach by governments to ensure cities remain vibrant and livable for all. Through strategic environmental planning, the creation of communal spaces, and economic policies that promote inclusivity, urban centers can be transformed into bastions of sustainable and harmonious living. This vision for city life not only addresses current challenges but also paves the way for future generations to thrive in urban landscapes.


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Sample Essay 3

The ongoing trend of urban migration has resulted in both opportunities and challenges for individuals seeking a better life in cities. While urban living offers higher living standards and greater economic prospects, it also presents a plethora of difficulties, such as unemployment, traffic congestion, and an elevated cost of living. This essay will delve into these challenges and propose effective solutions that governments can implement to enhance the quality of life for urban residents.


In the face of rapid urbanization, cities are experiencing a multitude of issues that exacerbate the living conditions of their inhabitants. One of the most pressing challenges is the high rate of unemployment, primarily due to an influx of job seekers and oversaturated job markets. As a result, many individuals struggle to secure stable employment, leading to financial instability and social unrest. Furthermore, the burgeoning population places immense pressure on urban transportation systems, resulting in congested roads, extended commute times, and increased pollution levels. Lastly, the high cost of living in urban centres, driven by escalating housing prices and inflated living expenses, renders life challenging for average earners.


To mitigate these challenges, governments must adopt targeted strategies that address the growing needs of urban populations. Firstly, the authorities can improve the job market by providing transparent information on job opportunities and promoting skill development programs that cater to in-demand industries. By equipping individuals with relevant skills, the government can enhance their employability and reduce unemployment rates. Secondly, investment in sustainable transportation solutions, such as efficient public transit systems and infrastructure for cycling and walking, can alleviate traffic congestion and promote a cleaner urban environment. This approach not only benefits the individual's physical and mental well-being but also contributes to a greener, more sustainable city.


In conclusion, life in modern cities is becoming increasingly difficult due to the myriad challenges associated with urban living. However, through proactive government intervention, such as promoting relevant skill development and investing in sustainable transportation, it is possible to create more liveable and equitable urban environments for all residents.



Sample Essay 4

The migration towards cities is a phenomenon that has been occurring for centuries. In fact, the primary goal people seek from it is to find greener pastures. However, nowadays, life in cities can be quite challenging, mainly due to uncontrolled population growth. In this essay, I will delve into the problems that arise when living in cities and provide practical solutions that can be employed by the government to address these issues.


To begin with, it is easy to see that cities provide higher living standards, and the increasing demographic within contributes to a larger workforce. Nevertheless, it is also true that more people lead to more problems. For instance, highly populated cities encounter a common problem of having many job seekers compared to fewer job opportunities because of oversaturated job markets. With the further addition of more migrants, the unemployment rate is likely to increase. Moreover, with the inherent demands for transportation, crowded metropolitan areas are congested with vehicles, consequently resulting in stressful traffic jams that have negative effects on individuals and the environment. Notably, the cost of living in cities is quite high, and average earners often face challenges.


To address these issues, the government should rely on strategies that address the growing challenges. For example, authorities need to optimize the job situation by providing transparent information on the job market to guide people so they could pursue fields with higher demand for workers. Meanwhile, government agencies need to develop strategies to expand their workforce. Another important solution is to continue urban development to accommodate the growing population.


In conclusion, as increasing number of people are constantly migrating to cities, life in metropolitan areas is becoming difficult. Nonetheless, in today's world, it is possible for governments to implement strategies to improve living conditions and make these areas more liveable.


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