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Water Pollution Has Become an Increasing Problem Over the Past Few Decades - IELTS Essay


Water Pollution Has Become an Increasing Problem Over the Past Few Decades - IELTS Task 2 Band 9 Sample Essay


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Model Essay 1

The escalation of water pollution in recent decades presents a critical environmental challenge. This essay argues that the primary causes are industrial discharge and agricultural runoff, and advocates for stringent regulatory frameworks and community-based initiatives as effective countermeasures.


Firstly, industrial activities are a significant contributor to water pollution. Factories often discharge pollutants directly into water bodies without adequate treatment, introducing toxic substances such as heavy metals and chemical solvents. For instance, a report by the Environmental Protection Agency highlighted that industrial waste accounts for approximately 50% of the pollutants in rivers and lakes in industrialized countries. The impact is devastating, not only harming aquatic life but also contaminating drinking water sources, leading to health crises. Therefore, implementing stricter regulations on industrial discharge, coupled with monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, is imperative. By mandating industries to treat wastewater before release, the direct inflow of pollutants can be substantially reduced.


Furthermore, agricultural practices contribute markedly to water pollution through runoff that carries fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals into water bodies. This runoff leads to nutrient overload in water systems, causing eutrophication which severely degrades water quality and disrupts ecosystems. For example, the excessive use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has been linked to dead zones in major water bodies like the Gulf of Mexico, where oxygen levels are too low to support most marine life. Addressing this issue requires promoting sustainable farming practices, such as the use of organic fertilizers and integrated pest management. Additionally, the adoption of buffer zones along waterways can significantly mitigate the effects of agricultural runoff by filtering out harmful substances before they reach larger bodies of water.


In conclusion, water pollution is predominantly driven by unchecked industrial discharge and inefficient agricultural practices. The adoption of rigorous regulations for industries and encouragement of eco-friendly farming are vital steps towards mitigating this global issue.


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Model Essay 2

Water pollution has increasingly compromised ecosystems and public health over the past decades. This essay contends that the primary contributors are untreated sewage and plastic waste, and proposes enhanced wastewater treatment and rigorous plastic management as viable solutions.


One of the main sources of water pollution is untreated sewage released into natural water bodies. This pollution originates from both residential and commercial waste, which contains pathogens, organic matter, and chemicals that deplete oxygen in water bodies and pose serious health risks. For example, in urban areas of developing countries, it is not uncommon for sewage systems to be either non-existent or severely overburdened, leading to direct discharge into rivers and lakes. The introduction of comprehensive sewage treatment facilities, supported by government funding and international aid, can dramatically improve this situation. The technology to treat and recycle wastewater is already well-established but requires investment and public awareness campaigns to increase its adoption.


Additionally, the proliferation of plastic waste contributes significantly to water pollution. Plastics, which are durable and slow to degrade, accumulate in waterways, oceans, and on beaches, harming marine life and entering the human food chain through seafood. Notable incidents such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch exemplify how extensive this issue has become. The solution lies in both reducing plastic production and improving waste management practices. Instituting policies that mandate the use of biodegradable materials and establishing strict recycling protocols are essential. Public education on the impacts of plastic pollution and the importance of recycling can also play a crucial role in mitigating this problem.


In conclusion, addressing the twin challenges of untreated sewage and rampant plastic waste is crucial to tackling water pollution. Through the implementation of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and stringent plastic management strategies, significant progress can be made towards restoring the integrity of our water bodies and ensuring a healthier environment for future generations.


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Model Essay 3

The escalating issue of water pollution poses severe threats to environmental and human health globally. This essay will argue that oil spills and urban runoff are significant contributors to this crisis, suggesting rigorous legal enforcement against polluters and the implementation of green infrastructure as solutions.


Oil spills are a major source of water pollution, often resulting from accidents and inadequate regulation of shipping and oil extraction industries. These spills release large volumes of petroleum into oceans and rivers, creating catastrophic effects on marine ecosystems and coastlines. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for instance, devastated the Gulf of Mexico's marine life and affected the health and economic well-being of people in coastal communities. To combat such disasters, it is crucial to enforce stricter regulations on oil drilling and transportation activities. Governments should impose severe penalties for spills, compelling companies to adopt higher safety standards and better emergency responses.


Urban runoff, another critical factor, carries pollutants from streets, lawns, and other urban areas into water bodies. This runoff contains a variety of harmful substances, including pesticides, heavy metals, and automotive fluids, which can severely affect aquatic life and water quality. The issue is exacerbated by increasing urbanization without adequate planning for water management. To address this, cities must integrate green infrastructure, such as permeable pavements, green roofs, and rain gardens, which naturally absorb and filter pollutants before they can enter water systems. Furthermore, promoting public awareness about the impact of everyday activities on water pollution can encourage more responsible behaviours, such as reducing chemical use and properly disposing of waste.


In conclusion, the severe issues of oil spills and urban runoff underline the urgent need for effective management strategies in combating water pollution. By strengthening legal frameworks against oil pollution and enhancing urban planning with green infrastructure, it is possible to significantly mitigate the impact on our water environments and secure a safer, healthier future for aquatic ecosystems and human populations alike.


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